TeleSupport India Repository

Solution Brinjal fruit and shoot borer controlled using pheromone traps
Last update: 10/10/2006
Summary A new method of controlling a damaging insect pest, the brinjal fruit and shoot borer, has been developed in Bangladesh and India. The method involves the use of a trap and a ‘lure’ which contains artificial sex pheromone of the borer. Under natural conditions, sex pheromone is produced by the adult female borer moths to attract adult male moths, which then mate with them. Researchers have been able to produce an artificial sex pheromone using the same compounds found in the natural sex pheromone. The advantage of the artificial sex pheromone is that large amounts can be made and used in lures. Farmers can place the lures in their brinjal fields to attract male moths which fall into the trap and are killed. This means that no mating can take place and the numbers of brinjal fruit and shoot borer reduce very quickly. The method is safe and the cost is lower than using insecticide.
forum discussion 
Contributed by person details Dr. Tim Chancellor (NRI, TeleSupport India)
Challenge/Issue Brinjal is a popular vegetable in South Asia and brinjal cultivation can provide farmers with a good source of income. One of the main constraints to producing a good brinjal crop is feeding damage caused by the caterpillar stage of the brinjal shoot and fruit borer. This feeding damage affects the quality of the crop and makes it difficult for farmers to sell their produce in the market. Many farmers try to deal with the problem by applying toxic insecticides to kill the caterpillars. This solution is not very effective, partly because the borer has developed resistance to a range of insecticides. The practice is also harmful for farmers who apply the insecticides and for consumers who eat the contaminated vegetables.
Method 1. Place pheromone traps in brinjal fields at 4 to 5 weeks after transplanting after constructing them using the guidelines outlined below.

2. Construct traps by using cylindrical plastic containers which have a capacity of approximately 3 litres. Make two small triangular holes on opposite sides of the containers at a height of 1 cm above the base. This will allow excess water to drain from the bottle. Place soapy water in the bottom of the containers.

3. Obtain brinjal shoot and fruit borer lures from a local dealer. Hang a single lure from the top of each container by a thin wire or piece of string and allowed to rest 1 cm above the level of the water.

4. Tie each trap to a bamboo or wooden stick and place just above the height of the brinjal plant. Adjust the height of the traps throughout the period of crop growth so that they remain just above the level of the crop.

5. Place traps at a distance of 10 metres between and within rows; so, for example, a large field of 1 ha would have 100 traps.

6. Every few days remove dead insects and debris from the traps, top up the water level and add more detergent.

7. After fifty days, remove the lures and replace with new ones.

8. After harvest, store the traps and then re-use in subsequent seasons.

Funnel traps may also be used instead of water traps. These are available locally in many places at a cost of Rs 15 each. Details of the traps are shown in the attached publication.
Lessons learned The following additional measures will lead to the best results and increase brinjal yield and income for farmers:

• Destroy plant debris from the previous season.
• Use healthy seedlings that are free from insects and diseases.
• During the cropping period, cut infested shoots or fruits and burn them.
• Keep the field free from weeds.

It is important to replace the lures after fifty days, as they cease to become effective in attracting male moths after this period. It is also important to ensure that the levels of water and detergent in the traps are maintained, otherwise the moths will not be retained in the traps.

The trap system has been evaluated over several seasons in various districts in Bangladesh and India (Gujarat, Utta Pradesh, Jharkhand, Orissa, West Bengal, Meghalaya, Tripura, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil nadu). The traps and lures are available in India from Biotech International Ltd. (Delhi), Pest Control India (nationwide), Agriland (Gujarat), Ganesh Biocontrol Systems (Gujarat), A.G. Biosystems Ltd. (Hyderabad), Basarass Biocon Ltd. (Chennai), Margo Biocontrol Ltd. (Bangalore) and Pheromone Chemicals Ltd. (Hyderabad).
List Keywords
1.1 Socio- economic Sector (OECD) 311 Agriculture
1.4 Target group(s) 1. Local communities
3. Intermediary organisations
2.2 Production Chain 3. Pest & Disease Control
2.3 Commodity group Food crops
2.4 Food Crops Eggplant (Solanum)
2.5a Agro-Ecology: Thermal zone 1: Tropical
Telesupport Themes IPM
Role Organisation Acronym
Network Organisation organisation details TeleSupport India Network TeleSupport India
Type Title Function Download
Manual or guideline output details How to use sex pheromone to control brinjal pests ' How to' manual 490kb
Manual or guideline output details Pictures of water trap and funnel trap ' How to' manual 193kb
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